After World War II, the United States abandoned the isolation policy (Monroe's doctrine) and adopted an active intervention approach in international affairs. The basis of such a policy in West Asia was based on two bases from the outset, the first to maintain the security of energy transfer to the West and the second to secure Israeli security. This strategy has shaped the United States' behavior over the past decades.
The revolution in Iran was one of the events that threatened American interests and challenged the country's political control. So from the first years of the victory of the revolution, the United States has adopted tactics such as establishing a military base and direct presence and signing of contracts and security agreements with its allies in the region. Then, with a direct military invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, he tried to set up the regional order in accordance with its will and interests in order to develop American political control. Along the way, however, the shift of power between the Democratic and republican parties and the political tendency of the USA presidents has been one of the factors and components of the country's way of dealing with the West Asian region. Accordingly, unlike the Bush (Republican) strategy to create a monopoly world under USA leadership and the development of American political control in the West Asian region, the Obama administration (Democrat) did not believe in USA physical and military presence in the West Asian region and under the umbrella of the soft and intelligent power project, he tried to give up the security of West Asia to the USA allies in the region and to provide support behind the scene. His attempt was to show the world a positive image of the United States by this policy and to improve the American image that was undermined by George Bush. Donald Trump (Republican) questioned Obama's approach in the Middle East and declared his government's priorities for return and more intervention in West Asia by choosing the slogan (First USA); A policy that he thought was needed to strengthen the world and American influence. Creating a strong alliance with the Gulf states against Iran, strengthening relations with Israel at the expense of endangering the peace process in the Middle East, more cooperation with Russia to manage conflicts in Syria and fight ISIL in Iraq, some of these policies were, but the problem that quickly shown itself was the contradiction of the interventionist approach in the Middle East with the slogan "First USA"; The contradiction that demonstrated the need for reform and change of USA policy, which led the Trump administration to leave USA troops from the West Asian region in the last months of his presidency. Therefore, change in American political parties is one of the factors affecting the USA approach to the West Asian region, but it is undoubtedly not just and the most important reason. In fact, it can be said that the most important factors influencing USA policies towards West Asia, which are constant in all American political groups, are the goals and interests that the country has in the West Asian region, the most important of which are:
_ Support for Israel
_ Iran's regional influence control and control of Iran's nuclear program
_ Confronting non -aligned terrorist groups with America
_ Prevent the expansion of nuclear weapons
_ Reduce the number of refugees
_ Ensure free flow of energy
_ Creating security for the main USA partners in the region
_ Effective intervention in the domestic and foreign affairs of the countries of the region
Thus, the policies of the USA chiefs of any political party for the Middle East are supporting Israel and Iran's control. they try to prevent the influence of the Islamic Republic of Iran in various dimensions in various ways, such as siege with a military base, threatening military attack, negotiations and agreement, and ultimately maximizing sanctions. In contrast, they seek security and consolidation in the region by reducing the importance of the Palestinian issue and turning Iran into the main enemy of the Arab countries and encouraging them to normalize relations with Israel. (In the form of treaties such as Camp David, Wadi Arab and Ibrahim Treaty).
That is why the USA approach to West Asia seems to be a function of the country's goals, interests and priorities in the world. However, the interests and threatening factors of each country's national security changes over time and new goals and interests are replaced; The United States is no exception, and this could affect the level of importance and position of West Asia for the United States.
Dr. Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri - University Professor
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